Well, personally I don't have too much trouble understanding four-dimensional models at least in a sense of analogy. In fact, assuming that your theory holds its waters empirically and mathematically, the idea of expanding hyper spherical wave in five dimensions makes more sense to me than many other theories.

As far as your four-dimensional dilator goes... I'm not sure yet. The way I understand it at the moment, considering that I did not thoroughly read everything you published so far, is that you propose some deformation in 4D space in a form of some rotating ellipsoid. Its rotation produces waves. Those waves are coherent and produce certain interference patterns, which manifest themselves as our matter. Am I far off base here? The part that I find difficult to relate to is the concept of double well potential. It doesn't seem to carry much meaning in itself.

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It is a pleasure seeing your Brain at work...:) You are not far, maybe a little....:)

Let's tackle the problem in a rational way. First forget that there is charge and mass and consider the approach I proposed to solve the differences between Gravitation and Electrostatics:

- I consider that the interaction between charged particles and non-charged particles to be the same, the difference in response is due to the "particle" the dilaton waves are effecting.

Language is a problem. You are used to the concept of particle and that is a very primitive concept. Let me introduce the concept of dilator:

- A dilator is a coherence between two 4D stationary deformational states. Normally one ascribe a stationary state to a localized potential as in the case of a Hydrogen atom. This has to be expanded to consider the translational symmetry of a 4D Cartesian space. Translational symmetry also results in conservation of 4D Linear Momentum. The rotational symmetry within the 3D Hypersurface (3D Space) results in the standard angular momentum conservation. Rotational symmetry around axis perpendicular to the Radial direction and X(Y or Z) results in conservation of Spin X (Spin Y or Spin Z).
- From the last statement, you should realize that Spin has become a quantum number associated with an extrinsic motion (motion perpendicular to RX or RY or RZ).
- Coming back to the concept of dilator, remember that you've heard about Gravitational Waves detection experiments etc and that requires that the metric of whatever space we live in to have a restoring force. One can only produce a wave in a medium with a restoring force. You mentioned Gravity in my Silver Surfer analogy. In a gas/solid/liquid it would be pressure or number density or any other intensive property of the medium.
- In the case of 4D space is the 4D metric spring constant (which I calculated in my paper).
- Now that you know the 5D Space supports metric waves (dilatons), you can learn what is a dilator.

To understand the concept of a dilator as being a coherence between 4D Stationary Deformational States it is advantageous to review what is an electronic coherence and how it produces electromagnetic waves.

I will tell you something that Science doesn't know...:) and that is the source of the action-at-distance paradox.

Let's think about a coherence between 1s and 2p states of a Hydrogen atom.

**What does that means?**

This means that we excited through some means a hydrogen atom such that its electron is now at the 2s stationary state. Normal quantum mechanics interpretation requires that a vaccum or real electromagnetic field to interact with the 2s hydrogen atom to create a coherence between 1s and 2s states. A coherence means that the Hydrogen atom plus electromagnetic field is neither is 2s nor in 1s states. Instead the hydrogen atom is in a combination states and properties will oscillate as the atom moves from one state to another.

A property dipole moment has expectation value equal to zero on either state. On the combination or coherence, one has a transition dipole moment, which oscilates with frequency equal to the energy gap between 1s and 2s (divided by h).

This oscillating dipole is equivalent to an oscillating charge and it will interact with other charges in the proximity. Everything (surrounding charges) is in motion. At this point, I would like to emphasize that the classical and quantum mechanical description are equivalent, that is, the charges interacting throught their electromagnetic fields will only absorb energy when there is a dephasing. A dephasing is what happens when you push a kid on a swing out of phase with the motion. If you push the kid perfectly in phase, the motion remains the same (if one neglects friction). The kid only reaches higher or lower heights if you are out of phase, energy only gets transferred during dephasing processes.

In the case of a dilator, instead of electronic states in a hydrogen atom, one has a local deformation (like a local shrinkage or stretching circular region on a bed sheet if one makes the analogy of the 4D space metric with bedding).

Dilaton are the 4D space metric waves with wavelength equal to the Compton wavelength of a Hydrogen atom (one atomic mass unit). This is a very small wavelength. The neutron Compton wavelength is 1.319 590 8951 x 10-15 m, that is basically 10^5 the hydrogen atom or the size of the nucleus.

In my Universe model, there is a very fine mess of dilaton waves propagating in all directions. Electromagnetic waves are waves on that mess with much longer wavelenght.

The dilator as a coherence between two states can be thought as a coherence between a dime and a quarter coins. Positive coins or cash is a positive displacement 4D volume while negative cash is a negative displacement 4D volume.

The dilator has spin, which makes it look like a rotating coin shifting from dime to quarter and from negative to positive...:) credit to debit...:)

Displacement 4D volumes are added or subtracted to the Cartesian 4D space, thus increasing or decreasing the distance between points on each side of the dilator.

As the rotating dime/quarter goes around it business, we only see the shadow, so if you ever see a dime, you will not see it when if becomes a quarter if there is a relationship between spinning and tunneling between dime and quarter states...

If the spinning is half (half the frequency of tunneling), then a dime will always be seen as a dime and a quarter will always be seem as a quarter.

At this point you should be jumping up and down and asking what about the intermediate phases...:) when the dime 10 degrees rotated and it is in the middle of tunneling...

Well, I have two answers.

- There is no such a thing as middle of tunneling (you are a dime at a give time and at another you become a quarter) nothing in between.
- There is pseudo-time quantization. Together with what you read above, this phase sensitive physics can be thought as time-quantization.

There is a Principle that goes hand in hand in my physics and with all physics. The principle is Hamilton's Principle or Lagrangian Principle... This principles is derived from forcing boundary forces to do no work.

In my Universe it translate into dilator always dilating in phase with the dilaton fields generated by all the other dilators. This is termed Cosmological Coherence and Quantum Lagrangian Principle in my paper.

Since I just have to consider specific phases, it is easy to extract the position of the dilator at any given time.

This is done by calculating the gradient of the dilaton field in the surrounding of the probe dilator and move it to that position in the next step (of the Hyperspherical Universe expansion).

So we have an awfully big Universe stepping on a very small step along the radial direction. There is no quantization of the other directions (lateral directions), so space is not quantized on 3D. Neither is local time. Cosmological Time is quantized or not depending upon you taste. It is not important.

From the actual motion of the dilator calculated on the RXYZ cross-section of the Hypergeometrical Icon (figure above), one calculate the actual 4Dstress (=4DStrain*4DVolume) on the Fabric of Space.

Like the men on the cave we then calculate the 3DStrain (3DStrain*3DVolume).

Since in the RXYZ cross-section one sees the whole volume (dime plus quarter), one uses 1 as the 4D Volume. On the XYZTau cross-section, we only see the shadow (either a dime/electron or quarter/proton).

The Double Potential well is mentioned becose one needs to have a coherence between asymmetric states - the electron and the proton have clearly different 3D volume projections.

The why the double potential is asymmetric should not raise problems since the motion forward is clearly asymmetric. The final description of the metric double potential well is to be detailed by other people with access to data and time...:) I don't really have time now to do that...:)

In summary, in my Universe, Electron and Proton are the dime and quarter of this basic description. They are the two (of four) phases of this tunneling spinning process. Anti-particles are the other two (anti-proton and anti-electron).

So there isn't anything as a particle (a localized something) or a particle-wave duality as you might have heard. There is only a fundamental dilator.

The fundamental dilator is so important because the tunneling frequency determines interaction. If you put together particles with different tunneling frequencies they will produce dilaton fields of different wavelengths and their interaction will vanish at long distance.

This is the basis for non-interacting dilators (neutrinos and maybe dark matter).

Let me know if you understood and ask me any questions. It would be invaluable for me to know if people can understand such clear concepts..>:)

Cheers,

MP

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